itsIslam - share knowledge itsIslam - share knowledge
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
itsIslam - share knowledge itsIslam - share knowledge
Home
Basics
Quran Audio and Translation
Naats
Islamic Articles
Lectures by Islamic Scholars
Islamic Picture Gallery
You are here: Home > Articles > Physics by Muslims
Categories
Allah (SWT)
1. Allah the Creator and Lord of Universe
2. Attributes of Allah Almighty
3. Concept of God in Islam
4. Getting closer to Allah
5. Infinite Powers of Allah
Beliefs and Worships
1. 8 ways to boost your Ramadan spirit
2. Behavior of Old and Young
3. Caring for the Orphans and Weak
4. Cleanliness and Beautification in Islam
5. For Whom Fasting is Mandatory?
6. Hajj
7. Human Rights in Islam
8. Itikaf: Spiritual Retreat in Ramadan
9. Kindness to Daughters
10. Lessons of Fasting in Ramadan
11. Marriage Proposals
12. Marriage to Women of People of the Book
13. Marrying more than one Woman
14. Merits of Fasting
15. Mutual Rights of Husband and Wife
16. No Monasticism in Islam
17. Our On Going Test
18. Prayers
19. Prohibition of a Muslim Woman Marrying a Non-Muslim
20. Ramadan (Fasting) - month of forbearance and brotherhood
21. Rights of Neighbors
22. Rights of Relatives
23. Sadaqat-ul-Fitr (Charity of Ramadan)
24. Seeing the Woman before Marriage
25. Ten Goals for Ramadan
26. Treating Children Equally
27. Treatment of Slaves And Servants
28. Why Marrying More Than One Permitted?
29. Woman In Islam - 1
30. Woman In Islam - 2
31. Women To Whom Marriage is Prohibited
32. Zakat (Charity or Alms)
Islam
1. Basics of becoming Muslim
2. Beliefs and Practices
3. Brief History of Islam
4. Days and Dates of Islamic significance
5. Dealing with Anti Islamic Websites
6. Holy Days of Islam
7. Ibadaat during Last Ten Days of Ramadan
8. Introduction to Islam
9. Islam, A World Civilization
10. Islamic Calendar
11. Lailat ul-Qadr (The Night of Power)
Islam and Science
1. Biology by Muslims
2. Chemistry by Muslims
3. Experimental Methods by Muslims
4. Transmission of Sciences
Islamic Scholars
1. Imam Maalik
2. Imam Shafie
3. Physics by Muslims
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)
1. Characteristics of Prophet Muhammad
2. Last Sermon by Prophet (PBUH)
3. Life of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)
Stories of Prophets
1. Prophet Adam (PBUH)
2. Prophet Ayub (PBUH)
3. Prophet Aziz (PBUH)
4. Prophet Dawood (PBUH)
5. Prophet Huud (PBUH)
6. Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH)
7. Prophet Idris (PBUH)
8. Prophet Isa (Jesus) (PBUH)
9. Prophet Ismail (PBUH)
10. Prophet Lut (PBUH)
11. Prophet Musa (Moses) (PBUH)
12. Prophet Nuh (Noah) (PBUH)
13. Prophet Salih (PBUH)
14. Prophet Shoaib (PBUH)
15. Prophet Yahya (PBUH)
16. Prophet Yaqub (PBUH)
17. Prophet Zakariya (PBUH)

Physics by Muslims

The Holy Quran had awakened a spirit of enquiry among the Arabs which was instrumental in their splendid achievements in the field of science, and according to a western critic led them to realize that "science could not be advanced by mere speculation; its only sure progress lay in the practical interrogation of nature. The essential characteristics of their method are experiment and observation. In their writings on Mechanics, hydrostatics, optics, etc., the solution of the problem is always obtained by performing an experiment, or by an instrumental observation.

It was this that made them the originator of chemistry, that led them to the invention of all kinds of apparatus for distillation, sublimation, fusion and filtration; that in astronomy caused them to appeal to divided instrument, as quadrant and astrolabe; in chemistry to employ the balance the theory of which they were perfectly familiar with; to construct tables of specific gravities and astronomical tables, that produced their great improvements in geometry and trigonometry.

The Muslims developed Physics to a high degree and produced such eminent physicist as Kindi, Jahiz, Banu Musa, Beruni, Razi and Abdur Rahman Ibn Nasr.

Work of Muslim Physicists

Al-Kindi

Abu Yusuf Ibn Ishaq, known as al-Kindi was born at Kufa in the middle of the 9th century and flourished in Baghdad. He is the most dominating and one of the greatest Muslim scholars of physics. Over and above this, he was an astrologer, philosopher, alchemist, optician and musical theorist. He wrote more than 265 books, the majority of which have been lost.

Most of his works which survived are in Latin having been translated by Gerard of Cremona. Of these fifteen are on meteorology, several on specific weight, on tides, on optics and on reflection of light, and eight are on music. His optics influenced Roger Bacon. He wrote several books on iron and steel to be used for weapons. He applied mathematics not only to physics, but also to medicine.

He was therefore regarded by Cardon, a philosopher of the Renaissance, "as one of the 12 subtlest minds." He thought that gold and silver could only be obtained from mines and not through any other process. He endeavored to ascertain the laws that govern the fall of bodies.

Razi

Razi investigated on the determination of specific gravity of means of hydrostatic balance, called by him Mizan-al-Tabii. Most of his works on physics, mathematics, astronomy and optics have perished. In physics his writings deal with matter, space, time and motion. In his opinion matter in the primitive state before the creation of the world was composed of scattered atoms, which possessed extent. Mixed in various proportions with the articles of void, these atoms produced these elements which are five ih number namely earth, air, water, fire and celestial element. Fire is created by striking iron on the stone.

Abu Rehan Beruni

Abu Rehan Beruni, was a versatile genius, who adorned the durbar of Mahmud of Ghazni. His outstanding achievement in the realm of physics was the accurate determination of the weight of 18 stones. He also discovered that light travels faster than sound. He has also contributed immensely to geological knowledge by providing the correct explanation of the formation of natural spring and artesian wells.

He suggested that the Indus valley was formerly an ancient basin filled with alluvial soil. His Kitab al Jawahir (Book of Jewels) deals with different types of gems and their specific gravity.

Khazini

Khazini, was a well known scientist of Islam, who explained the greater density of water when nearer to the center of the earth. Roger Bacon, who proved the same hypotheses afterwards based his proof on the theories advanced by Khazini. His brilliant work Mizanul Hikmah (Balance of Knowledge) deals with gravity and contains tables of densities of many solids and liquids. It also contains "observation on capillarity, uses of aerometer to measure densities and appreciate the temperature of liquids, theory of the lever and the application of balance to building."

Other notable Physicists

  • A voluminous unedited lapidary by Betuni is kept in manuscript form in the Escorial Library. It deals with a large number of stones and metals from the natural, commercial and medical point of view.

  • Barlu Musa has left behind him a work on balance, while Al-Jahiz used hydrostatic balance to determine specific gravity.

  • An excellent treatise had been written by Al-Naziri regarding atmosphere.

  • Chapters on weights and measures' were written by Ibn Jami and Al-Attar. Abdur Rahman Ibn Nasr wrote an excellent treatise on weights and measures for the use of Egyptian markets.

 

Article Contributed by: itsIslam Staff



Follow us on:
Follow us on Facebook

Contribute

If you like this site, then please Contribute and support us.

If you like this site, then please Contribute to support us.
2005 - 2016, itsIslam - share knowledge, All rights reserved.
Powered by: Habibz Inc. - Part of itsPakistan Network